Coffee

Coffee

Definition

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean.Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Africa. Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular drinks in the world, and it can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, café latte). It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative. Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although those long-term studies are of generally poor quality.

Coffee

Technology

The Manufacturing Process
Drying and husking the cherries

1. First, the coffee cherries must be harvested, a process that is still done manually. Next, the cherries are dried and husked using one of the two methods. The dry method is an older, primitive, and labor-intensive process of distributing the cherries in the sun, raking them several times a day, and allowing them to dry. When they have dried to the point at which they contain only 12 percent water, the beans’ husks become shriveled. At this stage, they are hulled, either by hand or by a machine.

2. In employing the wet method, the hulls are removed before the beans have dried. Although the fruit is initially processed in a pulping machine that removes most of the material surrounding the beans, some of this glutinous covering remains after pulping. This residue is removed by letting the beans ferment in tanks where their natural enzymes digest the gluey substance over a period of 18 to 36 hours. Upon removal from the fermenting tank, the beans are washed, dried by exposure to hot air, and put into large mechanical stirrers called hullers. There, the beans’ last parchment covering, the pergamino, crumbles and falls away easily. The huller then polishes the bean to a clean, glossy finish.

Cleaning and grading the beans

3. The beans are then placed on a conveyor belt that carries them past workers who remove sticks and other debris. Next, they are graded according to the size, the location and the altitude of the plantation where they were grown, drying and husking methods, and the taste. All these factors contribute to certain flavors that consumers will be able to select thanks in part to the grade. To make instant coffee, manufacturers grind the beans and brew the mixture in percolators. During this process, an extract forms and is sprayed into a cylinder. As it travels down the cylinder, the extract passes through warm air that converts it into a dry powder.

4. Once these processes are completed, workers select and pack particular types and grades of beans to fill orders from the various roasting companies that will finish preparing the beans. When beans (usually robusta) are harvested under the undesirable conditions of hot, humid countries or coastal regions, they must be shipped as quickly as possible, because such climates encourage insects and fungi that can severely damage a shipment.

5. When the coffee beans arrive at a roasting plant, they are again cleaned and sorted by mechanical screening devices to remove leaves, bark, and other remaining debris. If the beans are not to be decaffeinated, they are ready for roasting.

Decaffeinating

6. If the coffee is to be decaffeinated, it is now processed using either a solvent or a water method. In the first process, the coffee beans are treated with a solvent (usually methylene chloride) that leaches out the caffeine. If this decaffeination method is used, the beans must be thoroughly washed to remove traces of the solvent before roasting. The other method entails steaming the beans to bring the caffeine to the surface and then scraping off this caffeine-rich layer.

Roasting

7. The beans are roasted in huge commercial roasters according to procedures and specifications which vary among manufacturers (specialty shops usually purchase beans directly from the growers and roast them on-site). The most common process entails placing the beans in a large metal cylinder and blowing hot air into it. An older method, called singeing, calls for placing the beans in a metal cylinder that is then rotated over an electric, gas, or charcoal heater.

Regardless of the particular method used, roasting gradually raises the temperature of the beans to between 431 and 449 degrees Fahrenheit (220-230 degrees Celsius). This triggers the release of steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and other volatiles, reducing the weight of the beans by 14 to 23 percent. The pressure of these escaping internal gases causes the beans to swell, and they increase their volume by 30 to 100 percent. Roasting also darkens the color of the beans, gives them a crumbly texture, and triggers the chemical reactions that imbue the coffee with its familiar aroma (which it has not heretofore possessed).

8. After leaving the roaster, the beans are placed in a cooling vat, wherein they are stirred while cold air is blown over them. If the coffee being prepared is high-quality, the cooled beans will now be sent through an electronic sorter equipped to detect and eliminate beans that emerged from the roasting process too light or too dark.

9. If the coffee is to be pre-ground, the manufacturer mills it immediately after roasting. Special types of grinding have been developed for each of the different types of coffee makers, as each functions best with the coffee ground to a specific fineness.

Instant coffee

10. If the coffee is to be instant, it is brewed with water in huge percolators after the grinding stage. An extract is clarified from the brewed coffee and sprayed into a large cylinder. As it falls downward through this cylinder, it enters a warm air stream that converts it into a dry powder.

Packaging

11. Because it is less vulnerable to flavor and aroma loss than other types of coffee, the whole bean coffee is usually packaged in foil-lined bags. If it is to retain its aromatic qualities, pre-ground coffee must be hermetically sealed: it is usually packaged in impermeable plastic film, aluminum foil, or cans. Instant coffee picks up moisture easily, so it is vacuum-packed in tin cans or glass jars before being shipped to retail stores.

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Uses

13 Health Benefits of Coffee, Based on Science
Coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages.
Thanks to its high levels of antioxidants and beneficial nutrients, it also seems to be quite healthy.
Studies show that coffee drinkers have a much lower risk of several serious diseases.
Here are the top 13 health benefits of coffee.
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1. Can Improve Energy Levels and Make You Smarter
Coffee can help people feel less tired and increase energy levels.
That’s because it contains a stimulant called caffeine — the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world.
After you drink coffee, the caffeine is absorbed into your bloodstream. From there, it travels to your brain.
In the brain, caffeine blocks the inhibitory neurotransmitter adenosine.
When this happens, the amount of other neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and dopamine increases, leading to enhanced firing of neurons.
Many controlled studies in humans show that coffee improves various aspects of brain function — including memory, mood, vigilance, energy levels, reaction times and general mental function.
2. Can Help You Burn Fat
Caffeine is found in almost every commercial fat-burning supplement and for good reason, it is one of the few natural substances proven to aid fat burning.
Several studies show that caffeine can boost your metabolic rate by 3–11%.
Other studies indicate that caffeine can specifically increase fat burning by as much as 10% in obese individuals and 29% in lean people.
However, these effects may diminish in long-term coffee drinkers.
3. Can Drastically Improve Physical Performance
Caffeine stimulates your nervous system, signaling fat cells to break down body fat.
But it also increases epinephrine (adrenaline) levels in your blood.
This is the fight-or-flight hormone, which prepares your body for intense physical exertion.
Caffeine breaks down body fat, making free fatty acids available as fuel.
Given these effects, it is unsurprising that caffeine can improve physical performance by 11–12%, on average.
Therefore, it makes sense to have a strong cup of coffee about half an hour before you head to the gym.
4. Contains Essential Nutrients
Many of the nutrients in coffee beans make their way into the finished brewed coffee.
A single cup of coffee contains:
• Riboflavin (vitamin B2): 11% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI).
• Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5): 6% of the RDI.
• Manganese and potassium: 3% of the RDI.
• Magnesium and niacin (vitamin B3): 2% of the RDI.
Though this may not seem like a big deal, most people enjoy several cups per day — allowing these amounts to quickly add up.
5. May Lower Your Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem, currently affecting millions of people worldwide.
It’s characterized by elevated blood sugar levels caused by insulin resistance or a reduced ability to secrete insulin.
For some reason, coffee drinkers have a significantly reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
Studies observe that people who drink the most coffee have a 23–50% lower risk of getting this disease. One study showed a reduction as high as 67%.
According to a large review of 18 studies in a total of 457,922 people, each daily cup of coffee was associated with a 7% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
6. May Protect You From Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of dementia worldwide.
This condition usually affects people over 65, and there is no known cure.
However, there are several things you can do to prevent the disease from occurring in the first place.
This includes the usual suspects like eating healthy and exercising, but drinking coffee may be incredibly effective as well.
Several studies show that coffee drinkers have up to a 65% lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
7. May Lower Your Risk of Parkinson’s
Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative condition, right behind Alzheimer’s.
It’s caused by the death of dopamine-generating neurons in your brain.
As with Alzheimer’s, there is no known cure, which makes it that much more important to focus on prevention.
Studies show that coffee drinkers have a much lower risk of Parkinson’s disease, with a risk reduction ranging from 32–60%.
In this case, the caffeine itself appears to be beneficial, as people who drink decaf don’t have a lower risk of Parkinson’s.
8. May Protect Your Liver
Your liver is an amazing organ that carries out hundreds of important functions.
Several common diseases primarily affect the liver, including hepatitis, fatty liver disease, and many others.
Many of these conditions can lead to cirrhosis, in which your liver is largely replaced by scar tissue.
Interestingly, coffee may protect against cirrhosis. People who drink 4 or more cups per day have up to an 80% lower risk.
9. Can Fight Depression and Make You Happier
Depression is a serious mental disorder that causes a significantly reduced quality of life.
It is very common, as about 4.1% of people in the US currently meet the criteria for clinical depression.
In a Harvard study published in 2011, women who drank 4 or more cups of coffee per day had a 20% lower risk of becoming depressed.
Another study in 208,424 individuals found that those who drank 4 or more cups per day were 53% less likely to die by suicide .
10. May Lower Risk of Certain Types of Cancer
Cancer is one of the world’s leading causes of death. It is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in your body.
Coffee appears to be protective against two types of cancer: liver and colorectal cancer.
Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the world, while colorectal cancer ranks fourt.
Studies show that coffee drinkers have up to a 40% lower risk of liver cancer.
Similarly, one study in 489,706 people found that those who drank 4–5 cups of coffee per day had a 15% lower risk of colorectal cancer.
11. Doesn’t Cause Heart Disease and May Lower Stroke Risk
It is often claimed that caffeine can increase blood pressure.
This is true, but with a rise of only 3–4 mm/Hg, the effect is small and usually dissipates if you drink coffee regularly.
However, it may persist in some people, so keep that in mind if you have elevated blood pressure.
That being said, studies do not support the idea that coffee raises your risk of heart disease .
On the contrary, there is some evidence that women who drink coffee have a reduced risk.
Some studies also show that coffee drinkers have a 20% lower risk of stroke.
12. May Help You Live Longer
Given that coffee drinkers are less likely to get many diseases, it makes sense that coffee could help you live longer.
Several observational studies indicate that coffee drinkers have a lower risk of death.
In two very large studies, drinking coffee was associated with a 20% reduced risk of death in men and a 26% reduced risk of death in women, over 18–24 years.
This effect appears particularly strong in people with type 2 diabetes. In one 20-year study, individuals with diabetes who drank coffee had a 30% lower risk of death.
13. The Biggest Source of Antioxidants in the Western Diet
For people who eat a standard Western diet, coffee may be one of the healthiest aspects of their diet.
That is because coffee is quite high in antioxidants. Studies show that many people get more antioxidants from coffee than from fruits and vegetables combined.
In fact, coffee may be one of the healthiest beverages on the planet.

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Statistics

Coffee exports by country totaled US$32.7 billion in 2017, up by an overall 15.9% for all coffee shippers over the five-year period starting in 2013. Year over year, the value of globally exported coffee appreciated by 7.5% from 2016 to 2017.

Europe accounted for the highest dollar value worth of coffee exports during 2017 with shipments amounting to $11.5 billion or 35.1% of worldwide exported coffee. Close behind in second place was Latin America (excluding Mexico) plus the Caribbean at 33.2%. Smaller percentages belonged to exporters in Asia at 18.3%, Africa at 6.9%. North America at 5.9% then Oceania at just 0.6% led by Papua New Guinea and Australia.

The 4-digit Harmonized Tariff System (HTS) code prefix for coffee is 0901.
Below are the 15 countries that exported the highest dollar value worth of coffee during 2017:
Brazil: US$4.6 billion (14.1% of total coffee exports)
Vietnam: $3.5 billion (10.7%)
Germany: $2.64 billion (8.1%)
Colombia: $2.58 billion (7.9%)
Switzerland: $2.2 billion (6.9%)
Italy: $1.6 billion (5%)
Indonesia: $1.19 billion (3.6%)
Honduras: $1.16 billion (3.6%)
France: $1.07 billion (3.3%)
Belgium: $940.3 million (2.9%)
Ethiopia: $938 million (2.9%)
United States: $873.1 million (2.7%)
Netherlands: $754.1 million (2.3%)
Guatemala: $748.6 million (2.3%)
Peru: $707.2 million (2.2%)
The listed 15 countries shipped over three-quarters (78.2%) of global coffee exports for 2017 by value.

The fastest-growing top coffee exporters from 2013 to 2017 were: Netherlands (up 12 8.7%), Ethiopia (up 54.7%), France (up 41.4%), Honduras (up 39.2%) and Vietnam (up 36.7%).

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